Young Witnesses to George Floyd’s Death Testify at Chauvin Trial

The bystander video of Derek Chauvin and the precise cause of Mr. Floyd’s death have emerged as key arguments. Here’s the latest on the trial.,

LiveUpdated March 30, 2021, 3:59 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 3:59 p.m. ET

The teenager who filmed the video of Mr. Floyd’s arrest and other people at the scene described what they saw.

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Watch live coverage of the trial of Derek Chauvin. Note: The video may include graphic images.CreditCredit…Joshua Rashaad McFadden for The New York Times
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March 30, 2021, 3:30 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 3:30 p.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

The family member of George Floyd in the courtroom today is Brandon Williams, Mr. Floyd’s nephew. (Because of coronavirus restrictions, Mr. Floyd’s family and Derek Chauvin’s family each get one seat.) Mr. Williams told one of the reporters inside the courtroom that he had never watched the infamous video of Mr. Floyd’s arrest because it would be too painful. He said he grew up in the same house as Mr. Floyd in Houston.

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March 30, 2021, 3:44 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 3:44 p.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

The Chauvin family seat remains empty, as it has been for three weeks, throughout jury selection and again on the opening day of the trial on Monday.

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March 30, 2021, 3:33 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 3:33 p.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

When videos have been played in the courtroom today, Mr. Williams has looked away or down at his hands.

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March 30, 2021, 3:14 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 3:14 p.m. ET

Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs

Reporting from New York

In his questioning, the lawyer for Derek Chauvin is focusing on the fact that the current teenage witness previously told the authorities that she had seen police officers check George Floyd’s pulse “multiple times.” Other witnesses have said they never saw the officers do so.

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March 30, 2021, 3:10 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 3:10 p.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

Prosecutors continue to focus on the amount of time that Derek Chauvin’s knee was on George Floyd’s neck. They hope this will help them establish that even as the defense says the use of force was necessary at one point as they arrested Mr. Floyd, it eventually became unnecessary and unlawful. “I knew time was running out or it had already,” said the current witness, who was 17 at the time and is testifying off-camera. She added that she believed she was watching Mr. Floyd die.

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March 30, 2021, 3:11 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 3:11 p.m. ET

Shaila Dewan

Reporting from Minneapolis

One of the main prosecution points with these bystanders has been that by witnessing what happened to Mr. Floyd, they also became victims. They are asking about the lasting effects and trauma of having seen what happened to him.

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March 30, 2021, 3:09 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 3:09 p.m. ET

The New York Times

The scene outside the Hennepin County Government Center was quieter on Tuesday, the second day in the murder trial of Derek Chauvin. Across the city, protesters placed signs and public displays to George Floyd and others killed by police violence.

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March 30, 2021, 2:53 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 2:53 p.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

The prosecution is playing another bystander video taken by this witness, who was 17 at the time of George Floyd’s death. She is less emotional on the stand than Darnella Frazier, who was also 17 at the time and testified this morning, but clearly those who watched Mr. Floyd’s arrest are deeply traumatized. The prosecutors hope this testimony will weigh on the jury.

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March 30, 2021, 2:59 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 2:59 p.m. ET

Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs

Reporting from New York

The side-by-side presentation of the bystander video and surveillance footage is meant to give a full sense of the scene, something both sides want to stress. Derek Chauvin’s lawyer wants to show that bystanders were yelling angrily, and the prosecution wants to show that witnesses were disturbed by what they saw.

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March 30, 2021, 2:36 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 2:36 p.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

It appears that the prosecution’s case will be presented in three phases, and we remain in the first phase: focusing on May 25, the day George Floyd died, and the details, evidence and eyewitness testimony from that day. This will likely be the most emotional piece of the prosecution’s case. The other two phases will be focused on medical testimony and police policies.

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March 30, 2021, 2:28 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 2:28 p.m. ET
Credit…Court TV still image, via Associated Press

Clad in a light-blue surgical mask and a suit and tie, Derek Chauvin betrayed little emotion on the second day of his trial as witnesses described him as cold and heartless. He scribbled notes diligently on a legal pad, stole glances at the jury and stood when identified by witnesses.

Attempts by the defense to humanize Mr. Chauvin, the former police officer accused of second-degree murder in the death of George Floyd, are central to their effort to portray him as a responsible person who was only doing his job, said Justin Hansford, a law professor at Howard University’s law school. That’s part of a strategy to mitigate the “heinous” video that shows Mr. Chauvin with his knee on Mr. Floyd, he said.

A defense lawyer will advise clients to look empathetic and engaged “even when there are emotional pieces of testimony,” said Mr. Hansford. “The jurors will certainly glance over at him, to look at his engagement.” He added that defendants are often advised not to have any skeptical or hostile reactions. “The position is that you are sorry about what happened to the gentleman but you were doing your job.”

Mary Fay, a former federal prosecutor who teaches criminal law and criminal proceedings at the University of Washington School of Law, said that the defense strategy appeared to rely on “split-second syndrome.”

“The Supreme Court has recognized that law enforcement officers have to make decisions in the heat of the moment,” she said. “They’ve given police officers a lot of latitude in these judgment calls, including with respect to the use of force.”

Mr. Chauvin’s demeanor — seen in his note taking and professional attire — played into this strategy by making him seem “respectful of procedure” and provided an alternative image for the jury to counter the one of the officer seen in the video. It emphasized that “this is a trained professional with almost two decades of experience who was in a volatile situation,” Ms. Fay said.

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March 30, 2021, 2:25 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 2:25 p.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

Court resumes after a lunch break. The next witness, another bystander who was a minor last year at the time of George Floyd’s death, will provide testimony off camera, like two other young witnesses did this morning.

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March 30, 2021, 2:30 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 2:30 p.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

The witness, a young woman, was 17 last May. She drove her grandfather’s tan Buick to Cup Foods to buy a charger for her phone. This is another witness the prosecution is putting on to humanize the group of bystanders that the defense has portrayed as an unruly mob that distracted the officers’ attention from Mr. Floyd as he was being restrained.

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March 30, 2021, 1:45 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 1:45 p.m. ET

By The New York Times

In testimony Tuesday morning, Darnella Frazier, a teenager who filmed the widely viewed video of George Floyd’s death, described how her life has changed since taking the footage, how she has blamed herself for not intervening and how, ultimately, she blamed Chauvin for Floyd’s death:

When I look at George Floyd, I look at my dad. I look at my brothers. I look at my cousins, my uncles, because they’re all Black. I have a Black father. I have a Black brother. I have Black friends. And I look at that, and I look at how that could have been one of them. It’s been nights I stayed up apologizing and apologizing to George Floyd for not doing more and not physically interacting and not saving his life, but it’s like, it’s not what I should have done. It’s what he should have done.

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March 30, 2021, 1:41 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 1:41 p.m. ET
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Young Bystander Testifies in Derek Chauvin Trial

On Tuesday, the prosecution called to the stand a 9-year-old girl who witnessed the arrest of George Floyd. She testified that she saw Derek Chauvin put his knee on Mr. Floyd’s neck.

“So you saw a knee being put on the neck of George Floyd. When was the knee taken — did you see that the knee was ever taken off of George Floyd’s neck?” “No.” “Were you there when an ambulance came?” “Yes.” “Tell us what happened after you saw the ambulance come.” “He asked, the ambulance had to push him off of him.” “And how did that happen? Did they simply come in an ambulance, and then go up to push him off or what happened?” “They asked him nicely to get off of him.” “And when they asked him nicely to get off of him, what did he do?” “He still stayed on him.” “And then what happened after he still stayed on him, what did the ambulance people do?” “They just had to pull him off, get off of him.” “Are you able to tell us, having been there on this day and seeing the officer on top of George Floyd, how did you feel about that? How did it affect you?” “I was sad and kind of mad.” “And can you tell us why were you sad and mad?” “Because it felt like he was stopping his breathing, and it was kind of, like, hurting him.”

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On Tuesday, the prosecution called to the stand a 9-year-old girl who witnessed the arrest of George Floyd. She testified that she saw Derek Chauvin put his knee on Mr. Floyd’s neck.CreditCredit…Court TV still image, via Reuters

Three witnesses testified on Tuesday morning, the second day of the trial of Derek Chauvin, a former Minneapolis police officer who has been charged with murder in George Floyd’s death. They included Darnella Frazier, the teenager who took the widely shared video of Mr. Chauvin kneeling on Mr. Floyd’s neck.

Here are highlights from the second day of trial:

  • Judge Peter A. Cahill ruled in the morning that four witnesses who are 18 or younger — including Ms. Frazier, her cousin and two others who are expected to testify on Tuesday afternoon — could deliver their testimony off-camera. Audio of their testimony will still be broadcast live, but the cameras will be trained on the judge or the lawyers questioning them.

  • Ms. Frazier, who was 17 when she recorded the cellphone video of Mr. Floyd’s arrest that brought widespread attention to his death, gave emotional testimony in court, saying she had felt regret for not physically confronting Mr. Chauvin, but that he was the one who was ultimately at fault. “When I look at George Floyd, I look at my dad,” said Ms. Frazier, now 18. “I look at my brothers, I look at my cousins, my uncles, because they’re all Black. I have a Black father. I have a Black brother. I have Black friends.” She added, “I look at how that could have been one of them.”

  • Ms. Frazier’s 9-year-old cousin, who was walking with her to the Cup Foods convenience store when they came upon the arrest, also briefly testified: “I was sad and kind of mad,” she said of seeing a police officer with his knee on a man’s neck. “It felt like he was stopping his breathing and it was kind of like hurting him.”

  • Donald Williams II, a mixed martial arts fighter who was also at the scene of Mr. Floyd’s arrest, had a testy exchange with the lawyer for Mr. Chauvin, who sought to emphasize that Mr. Williams did not have adequate medical or police training to evaluate the arrest of Mr. Floyd. Mr. Chauvin’s lawyer, Eric J. Nelson, also highlighted the loud crowd that formed as Mr. Floyd was being arrested. But Mr. Williams pushed back, saying, “You can’t paint me out to be angry.”

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March 30, 2021, 1:08 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 1:08 p.m. ET
Protestors passed Minneapolis City Hall on Monday on the way to the Hennepin County Government Center, where the Derek Chauvin trial was beginning.
Protestors passed Minneapolis City Hall on Monday on the way to the Hennepin County Government Center, where the Derek Chauvin trial was beginning.Credit…Aaron Nesheim for The New York Times

The 12-person jury in the murder trial of Derek Chauvin was selected from an original pool of more than 300 people from across Hennepin County. Over three weeks of jury selection, anonymous citizens sat one at a time on the witness stand and answered questions from the lawyers and judge about the political views and ability (or inability) to be impartial in the case.

Here are the jurors in the trial. After the two sides present their cases, 12 of the jurors will begin deliberations. Two others are alternates.

Juror No. 2 A white man in his 20s who works as a chemist and said he had not seen the bystander video and had strong views that the criminal justice system is biased against minorities.

Juror No. 9 A woman in her 20s who identifies as mixed race. She has an uncle who is a police officer and said she wanted to be on the jury.

Juror No. 19 A white man in his 30s who works as a financial auditor. He has a friend in the Minneapolis Police Department and said that George Floyd being under the influence of drugs shouldn’t be a factor in the case.

Juror No. 27 A Black man in his 30s, who immigrated to the United States 14 years ago and works in information technology. He disagreed with defunding the police and told his wife that Mr. Floyd “could have been me.”

Juror No. 44 A white woman in her 50s who is a health care executive. She said Mr. Floyd’s death awakened her to “white privilege.”

Juror No. 52 A Black man in his 30s who writes poems and coaches youth sports. He said he did not believe Mr. Chauvin intended to kill Mr. Floyd but wondered why the other three officers did not intervene.

Juror No. 55 A white woman in her 50s who took up motorcycle riding to honor her late husband. She said she had never watched the full bystander video because it disturbed her.

Juror No. 79 A Black man in his 40s who lives in the suburbs and said last year’s protests had no impact on his community.

Juror No. 85 A woman in her 40s who identifies as multiracial and works as a corporate consultant.

Juror No. 89 A white woman in her 50s who is a nurse and has worked with Covid-19 patients.

Juror No. 91 A Black woman in her 60s who is a grandmother. Asked about the Black Lives Matter movement, she said, “I am Black, and my life matters.”

Juror No. 92 A white woman in her 40s who works in the insurance industry. She said Mr. Floyd did not deserve to die and that the officers used excessive force.

Juror No. 96 A white woman in her 50s who volunteers at homeless shelters. She said she had a “neutral” opinion of Mr. Floyd.

Juror No. 118 A white woman in her 20s who is a social worker and recently married.

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March 30, 2021, 12:58 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 12:58 p.m. ET

John Eligon

Reporting from Minneapolis

There’s something very interesting about this question that has emerged in the defense lawyer’s cross-examination of witnesses, of whether the group that confronted the police officers subduing George Floyd was an angry mob, or a gathering of concerned residents. It speaks to larger questions of how police officers see the community — are they quick to see community members as a threat? — and how the community views the police force.

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March 30, 2021, 12:56 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 12:56 p.m. ET

John Eligon

Reporting from Minneapolis

The court just heard some very short off-camera testimony from the 9-year-old cousin of Darnella Frazier, who walked with Ms. Frazier to Cup Foods on the night of the George Floyd incident. The girl described seeing a police officer with his knee on Mr. Floyd’s neck. “I was sad and kind of mad,” she said. “It felt like he was stopping his breathing, and it was kind of, like, hurting him.” The defense lawyer asked her no questions.

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March 30, 2021, 12:49 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 12:49 p.m. ET

John Eligon

Reporting from Minneapolis

Very emotional end to the testimony of Darnella Frazier, the young woman who took the widely seen video of George Floyd’s arrest. She said: “When I look at George Floyd, I look at my dad. I look at my brothers. I look at my cousins, my uncles because they are all Black. I have a Black father. I have a Black brother. I have Black friends. And I look at that, and I look at how that could have been one of them.”

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March 30, 2021, 12:37 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 12:37 p.m. ET

By Matt Furber

The activist Kaia Hirt sits chained to the fence erected outside of the Hennepin County Government Center, where the trial is being held.
The activist Kaia Hirt sits chained to the fence erected outside of the Hennepin County Government Center, where the trial is being held.Credit…Aaron Nesheim for The New York Times

Just outside the courthouse, near a light-rail line across the street from City Hall, about two dozen protesters gathered on a corner carrying a Black Lives Matter sign, sharing coffee and blankets. They gave out hand sanitizer and masks.

One activist napped on a folding chair on a lawn just south of the courthouse. The fence outside the courthouse had activist signs, including one that called for abolishing the police.

At one point, tensions started to rise as protesters moved into the street. Police tried to move them back to the sidewalk as chants from the crowd grew. People in cars revved their engines. A man stepped out of an orange Subaru and yelled that the police were bad and that the system was racist. The atmosphere eventually calmed but the small group of activists continued to chant.

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March 30, 2021, 12:36 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 12:36 p.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

Here’s an update from the journalist serving as a pool reporter within the courtroom: Several jurors (who cannot be seen on camera in the live coverage of the proceedings) appear especially engaged today, taking a lot of notes. One juror in particular appeared uncomfortable and shocked during some of the testimony this morning.

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March 30, 2021, 12:30 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 12:30 p.m. ET

Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs

Reporting from New York

Returning to the witness stand after a break is Darnella Frazier, 18, who took the widely shared video of George Floyd’s arrest. A reporter in the courtroom said she was crying before the break as she described the scene.

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March 30, 2021, 12:32 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 12:32 p.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

Derek Chauvin’s lawyer, Eric Nelson, begins his cross examination of Ms. Frazier in a friendly manner. Unlike with Mr. Williams, the bystander and mixed-martial artist who testified this morning, he will have to tread lightly and not seem to antagonize Ms. Frazier, who appears traumatized by what she witnessed last year.

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March 30, 2021, 12:21 p.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 12:21 p.m. ET

By The New York Times

In testimony on Tuesday morning, Donald Williams II, the mixed martial artist who witnessed George Floyd’s death, described what he saw:

Correct. Like I said before, you could see that he was going through, uh, tremendous pain and you can see it in his face from the grunting. Uh, you can see his eyes slowly, you know, rolling back up in his head and him having his mouth open, um, wide open, slowly with drool and slob and dryness on his mouth. And, uh, you can see that he’s trying to, you know, gasp for air, you know, and trying to be able to breathe, uh, as he’s down there and trying to move his face, you know, side to side so he can you know, I’m believing, I’m assuming gasp for more air there.

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March 30, 2021, 11:59 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:59 a.m. ET

Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs

Reporting from New York

The court is taking a 15-minute break. When the jury returns at 11:15 Central, Darnella Frazier, who at 17 fimed the video of George Floyd’s arrest on a cellphone, bringing attention to his death, will return to the witness stand.

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March 30, 2021, 11:50 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:50 a.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

Ms. Frazier said the only violence she saw that day was from the police officers, a rebuttal to the defense’s portrayal of the bystanders as an angry mob that diverted the officers’ attention from Mr. Floyd.

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March 30, 2021, 11:56 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:56 a.m. ET

John Eligon

Reporting from Minneapolis

As is so often the case, this trial is a matter of perspective. Was there an angry mob that was striking fear into the police? Or were the police threatening bystanders who were trying to get George Floyd help?

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March 30, 2021, 11:48 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:48 a.m. ET
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Donald Williams II, Mixed Martial Artist, Questioned in Chauvin Trial

On Tuesday, Derek Chauvin’s defense team questioned Donald Williams II, a mixed martial artist who witnessed George Floyd’s death.

“Were there things that you saw on Mr. Floyd’s face that were significant to you?” “Correct, like I said before, you could see that he was going through tremendous pain, and you can see it in his face from the grunting. You can see it in his eyes, slowly, you know, rolling back in his head and him having his mouth open.” “The notion of a chokehold is very common within the martial arts community, right?” “That is correct.” “Submissions, and there are many forms, right?” “Correct.” “The referee may come and lift up the person’s arm to see if they’re conscious or unconscious, right?” “That’s correct.” “That’s a way of determining whether or not –” “That’s if they’re not moving. I mean, that’s just they’re not moving. They’re not fighting, and stuff like that. Yeah the referee, he has to make sure that the person is conscious, so he might say ‘keep moving.’ If they’re not moving, he might check, you know, and sometimes the opponent will know that that person is out. So the point is, you look at the ref like he’s out, like he’s out, he’s out, you know, things like that.” “And sometimes you don’t know that they’re out. And that’s why the ref comes and picks up the arm, right?” “Most opponents know when you put the person out.” “But it’s possible, right? It’s a yes or no question.” “It’s possible? “All right.” “How about that?”

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On Tuesday, Derek Chauvin’s defense team questioned Donald Williams II, a mixed martial artist who witnessed George Floyd’s death.CreditCredit…Still image from Court TV

The defense attorney for the former police officer Derek Chauvin spent Tuesday morning discrediting Donald Williams II, a mixed martial artist who witnessed the death of George Floyd, by drawing attention to his lack of knowledge of medical aid and police training.

Eric J. Nelson spent a good deal of the morning on the second day of the trial asking Mr. Williams to outline his experience as a fighter, his knowledge of different moves and even asking him whether he ever was able to speak when he was held in chokehold during a fight.

Mr. Williams reacted by turning to the judge on that last question, puzzled. The line of questioning suggested, as some observers have said, that Mr. Floyd would not have been able to speak had Mr. Chauvin cut off his airway by kneeling on his neck.

What began as a routine back-and-forth questioning that focused on Mr. Williams detailing his fighting experience became more pointed when Mr. Nelson began to ask him if he had threatened police as he watched Mr. Floyd be detained. Mr. Nelson attempted to paint Mr. Williams as an angry, disruptive bystander who had no medical experience with which to accurately judge the police officers’ actions. Mr. Nelson argued in his opening statement that the bystanders made the police’s job harder.

The back and forth was tense at times, with Mr. Nelson asking Mr. Williams if witnessing the situation made him want to fight the police officers.

“You can’t paint me out to be angry,” Mr. Williams said multiple times. Mr. Williams said he could see Mr. Floyd “was going through tremendous pain.”

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March 30, 2021, 11:43 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:43 a.m. ET

Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs

Reporting from New York

One of the few times we had heard from Ms. Frazier before now was earlier this month, when she wrote on Facebook that Derek Chauvin “deserves to go down” and asked what else might have been “covered up” if no one had recorded Mr. Floyd’s arrest.

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March 30, 2021, 11:43 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:43 a.m. ET
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‘He Was Suffering’: Teenager Who Filmed Floyd’s Arrest Testifies at Trial

Darnella Frazier, who was 17 years old when she filmed video of George Floyd’s arrest, testified on Tuesday in the murder trial of Derek Chauvin, the former Minneapolis police officer charged in Mr. Floyd’s death.

“And is this as you are approaching Cup Foods on May 25?” “Yes.” “Now see, there, your cousin goes into the store. Why did she go into the store, and then you turned around and then came back toward the squad cars?” “I wanted to make sure she got in.” [inaudible] “When you walk past the squad car there, did you see anything happening there on the ground as you were walking towards Cup Foods with your cousin?” “Yes, I see a man on the ground and I see a cop kneeling down on him.” “Was there anything about the scene that you didn’t want your cousin to see?” “Yes” “And what was that?” “A man terrified, scared, begging for his life.” “Is that why you directed your cousin to going into Cup Foods?” “Yes.” “And, and then when you saw what was happening there, at the scene, what was it about the scene that caused you to come back?” “He wasn’t right. He was he was suffering. He was in pain.” “So tell the jury what you observed, what you heard when you stopped to look at what was happening there at the scene.” “I heard George Floyd saying, ‘I can’t breathe. Please get off of me. I can’t breathe.’ He he cried for his mom. He was in pain. It seemed like he knew. It seemed like he knew it was over for him. He was terrified.”

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Darnella Frazier, who was 17 years old when she filmed video of George Floyd’s arrest, testified on Tuesday in the murder trial of Derek Chauvin, the former Minneapolis police officer charged in Mr. Floyd’s death.CreditCredit…Still image via Court TV

The woman who recorded Derek Chauvin as he knelt on George Floyd’s neck in a video that challenged the initial police narrative and brought a wave of attention to the death of Mr. Floyd gave emotional testimony in court on Tuesday morning.

Darnella Frazier was 17 when she recorded the cellphone video and uploaded it to Facebook in May, igniting international protests over racism and police abuse. Ms. Frazier, now 18, said in court that she feels regret for not physically engaging the officers, but that they were the ones ultimately at fault.

“It’s been nights I stayed up apologizing and apologizing to George Floyd for not doing more and not physically interacting and not saving his life,” Ms. Frazier said. She added, seemingly referring to Mr. Chauvin, who sat with his lawyer nearby: “But it’s like, it’s not what I should have done, it’s what he should have done.”

Ms. Frazier has largely stayed out of the spotlight since Mr. Floyd’s death, but she said his death has haunted her and that she has anxiety.

“When I look at George Floyd, I look at my dad, I look at my brothers, I look at my cousins, my uncles, because they’re all Black,” Ms. Frazier said. “I have a Black father. I have a Black brother. I have Black friends.

She added: “I look at how that could have been one of them.”

On the day of Mr. Floyd’s death, Ms. Frazier said, she had been walking to the Cup Foods convenience store with her 9-year-old cousin to get some snacks when they came upon the arrest.

“I see a man on the ground, and I see a cop kneeling down on him,” Ms. Frazier said. She described seeing Mr. Floyd “terrified, scared, begging for his life.”

Ms. Frazier said that as a crowd of bystanders yelled more loudly at the officers, Mr. Chauvin reached for his mace. “I felt in danger when he did that,” she said.

Ms. Frazier’s voice was emotional on the stand and she cried several times during her testimony. Judge Peter A. Cahill ruled on Tuesday that Ms. Frazier and three other witnesses, two of whom are minors and one of whom is also 18, could testify off-camera. Audio of their testimony is being broadcast live.

Ms. Frazier made one of her first public comments earlier this month, as the jury was being selected, when she wrote on Facebook and Instagram that Mr. Chauvin “deserves to go down” and wondered aloud “what else got covered up if it was no evidence.”

Ms. Frazier has been praised by Chief Medaria Arradondo of the Minneapolis Police Department and, in December, received an award for courage from PEN America, a group that promotes free expression. Spike Lee, the film director, presented her with the award during a virtual event.

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March 30, 2021, 11:41 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:41 a.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

Ms. Frazier is audibly emotional as she describes arriving on the scene at Cup Foods and seeing George Floyd “terrified, scared, begging for his life.”

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March 30, 2021, 11:42 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:42 a.m. ET

John Eligon

Reporting from Minneapolis

Ms. Frazier sounds like she is holding back tears. The emotion is palpable and difficult. This is the first time we have heard what motivated her to take that now infamous video.

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March 30, 2021, 11:35 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:35 a.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

Darnella Frazier, who took the famous bystander video last year when she was 17, takes the stand. She turned 18 last week, and is testifying off camera.

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March 30, 2021, 11:30 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:30 a.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

The judge is now telling the jury that the next four witnesses — two of whom are under the age of 18, and two of whom who were minors at the time of Mr. Floyd’s death — will not testify on camera.

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March 30, 2021, 11:29 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:29 a.m. ET

Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs

Reporting from New York

The trial ran smoothly on the first day, but a series of objections from both sides during the testimony of Donald Williams, who just left the stand, seems to have frustrated everyone — lawyers for both sides, Mr. Williams and the judge, who frequently had to break from questioning to discuss what could be asked.

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March 30, 2021, 11:17 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:17 a.m. ET

John Eligon

Reporting from Minneapolis

This is very effective redirect from the prosecutor. He has made it clear that there are differences between how things happen in a mixed-martial arts fight versus what was happening to George Floyd. He pointed out, for instance, that MMA fights are never three against one, and that fighters are never handcuffed.

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March 30, 2021, 11:05 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:05 a.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

This cross-examination of Mr. Williams by Mr. Chauvin’s lawyer is giving us some of the first testy moments of the trial. When Mr. Williams looked at notes, Mr. Nelson admonished him that court rules require witnesses to testify by memory.

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March 30, 2021, 11:15 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:15 a.m. ET

John Eligon

Reporting from Minneapolis

Mr. Nelson indicated yesterday during his opening statement that the crowd of people during the arrest of Mr. Floyd had made the officers worry for their safety. Now he is attempting to portray Mr. Williams as angry. “You can’t paint me out to be angry,” Mr. Williams said. He has indicated that his reaction was out of desperation because of what he was seeing.

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March 30, 2021, 11:02 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 11:02 a.m. ET
A memorial site for George Floyd near where he died in May was quiet on Tuesday morning.
A memorial site for George Floyd near where he died in May was quiet on Tuesday morning.Credit…Joshua Rashaad McFadden for The New York Times

Derek Chauvin faces three charges: second-degree murder, third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter.

Second-degree murder, also called unintentional murder or felony murder, is killing someone in the course of committing another felony — in this case, the prosecutors will argue that Mr. Chauvin was assaulting George Floyd. This charge does not require the prosecution to prove that Mr. Chauvin had any intent to kill. It carries a maximum sentence of 40 years, but Minnesota’s sentencing guidelines recommend a sentence of 10.5 years for someone who, like Mr. Chauvin, has no prior convictions.

Third-degree murder is a death that occurs when someone is acting extremely dangerously, without regard to human life and “evincing a depraved mind.” Prosecutors will argue that Mr. Chauvin knew that the restraint he used on Mr. Floyd was potentially lethal and a violation of police procedure and training. Third-degree murder carries a sentence of up to 25 years. The guideline recommendation is 10.5 years.

Second-degree manslaughter is death by “culpable negligence,” in which the perpetrator knowingly risks causing death or serious harm. It’s punishable by up to 10 years, but under the state guidelines a likely sentence would be four years.

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March 30, 2021, 10:45 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 10:45 a.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

On the stand, Donald Williams said he called 911 after George Floyd was taken away by the ambulance. “I believed I witnessed a murder,” he said.

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March 30, 2021, 10:50 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 10:50 a.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

He is the second witness to say he called the police on the police, after watching the encounter between Mr. Floyd and the officers. He is now being cross-examined by Mr. Chauvin’s lawyer, Eric Nelson.

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March 30, 2021, 10:33 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 10:33 a.m. ET

The call to jury duty for the trial of Derek Chauvin, the white former police officer accused of murdering George Floyd, a Black man, came with 14 pages of questions about race, policing, martial arts and podcasts.

Typically, such questionnaires include submissions from both the prosecution and the defense, with the final selections made by the judge. More than 300 questionnaires were returned. It is not clear whether the submitted answers will ever become public. But lawyers used these as a starting point when they began questioning potential jurors.

New York Times reporters reviewed the questionnaire before jury selection began to understand what lawyers for both sides would be looking for. Here is their analysis from before the process started.

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Read the full questionnaire

The document provides a window into the jury selection process for the highly anticipated trial of four police officers charged in the killing.

Read Document

What do you know about this case from media reports?

The goal is not to find someone who has never heard of George Floyd — anyone who makes that claim may be seen as incompetent or even dishonest. Still, lawyers will be trying to flag people who have been paying really close attention and may have already made up their minds on the case.

What podcasts do you regularly listen to?

The lawyers will be looking for ideological markers, and podcasts offer an almost infinite range of viewpoints from mainstream to niche. Generally speaking, the defense will be looking for political conservatives with pro-law-enforcement views.

Have you ever been restrained or put in a chokehold, for example, by law enforcement or during a self-defense class? ? Yes ? No If Yes, please explain:

This question gets at a tricky part of jury selection — do you want someone with a particular experience related to the case, or not? Sometimes it can be beneficial, but other times the juror may become overly focused on his or her own past.

The section above is crucial for both sides. The defense will be looking for people favorable to law enforcement, while the prosecution wants jurors who can be critical of the justice system. Strong views are likely to result in disqualification.

One concern is that this section, along with another section that asks whether jurors believe the criminal justice system is fair, could be used to eliminate jurors of color who express agreement with statements that are objectively true, for example, the Minneapolis police are more likely to use force against Black suspects than against white ones — at seven times the rate.

11. Do you have any martial arts training or experience?

Most likely, this is a question from the defense. That side will be looking for anyone with knowledge of restraint techniques and an understanding that using them can be safe and nonlethal.

There is one big rule in jury selection: Find out as much as you can about every candidate. There’s no single litmus test or demographic profile for who makes a good juror. Lawyers have to try to round out their portraits of each person, and will often be balancing plusses and minuses.

5. What city do you live in and how long have you lived there?

This question seems aimed at determining whether a potential juror has any personal experience with the unrest over the summer — whether, for instance, businesses in his or her community were damaged or looted.

The above section is another variation of the experience question. Doctors, police officers, forensic scientists — they may be better equipped to understand technical evidence, or they may substitute their own judgment for that of the expert witnesses giving testimony. It is unclear whether the lawyers want experts on the jury in this case.

Struggle with Drug Addiction?

This question underscores the role that drugs are likely to play in the case. We already know Mr. Floyd had fentanyl and methamphetamine in his system, and Mr. Chauvin‘s defense is likely to argue that Mr. Floyd died of a drug overdose. Therefore, the defense will probably pay special attention to this question, and perhaps seek to strike any juror who admits to having struggled with drugs.

14. Would any of the experiences you noted above make it difficult for you to be fair and impartial? If so, why?

The jury system depends almost entirely on the honesty of potential jurors. But often, all jurors have to do to satisfy the judge is to say that they can be impartial. If lawyers don’t believe them but cannot convince a judge to strike them for cause, they can still use one of their peremptory strikes — the prosecution has 9, the defense has 15.

3. Under our system of justice, defendants are presumed innocent of the criminal charges against them. Would you have any difficulty following this principle of law?

Conversely, jurors who don’t want to serve have an easy out: They can simply say they don’t agree with the fundamental principles of the system, or that they don’t think they can be fair.

11. Do you want to serve as a juror in this case? ? Yes ? No ? Not Sure

12. Why do you feel that way about serving as a juror in this case?

This is a trick question. Anyone who answers “yes” will be suspected of having an agenda, especially if the reason involves justice, race, policing or basically anything other than simply “I’ve always wanted to serve on a jury.”

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March 30, 2021, 10:24 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 10:24 a.m. ET
George Floyd’s family members after a court hearing in September 2020. The “8:46” mask was a reference to how long Derek Chauvin was initially said to have knelt on Mr. Floyd’s neck.Credit…Kerem Yucel/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

The length of time that Derek Chauvin was initially said to have knelt on George Floyd’s neck — eight minutes 46 seconds — was put on masks, shirts and signs and became a rallying cry for months at protests in Minneapolis and across the United States.

But the actual time was even longer — nine minutes 29 seconds — a prosecutor noted in court on Monday during the opening statements in the murder trial of Mr. Chauvin.

“The most important numbers you will hear in this trial are nine, two, nine,” Jerry W. Blackwell, one of the prosecutors, said in his opening statement. “What happened in those nine minutes and 29 seconds when Mr. Derek Chauvin was applying this excess force to the body of Mr. George Floyd.”

Shortly after Mr. Floyd’s death on May 25, prosecutors in Hennepin County indicated the length of time was eight minutes 46 seconds. Then, in June, they revised that time downward, to seven minutes 46 seconds, a move that they declined to explain or discuss in response to inquiries from The New York Times and other news outlets who showed that the time was incorrect.

In August, The Times determined, based on newly released body camera footage, that the correct time was about nine minutes 30 seconds. It was not until Monday that prosecutors offered the same number.

As the length of time has fluctuated, many Minneapolis residents and activists have said that the exact number is less important than the effect of Mr. Chauvin’s actions.

“It makes no difference,” Jamar Nelson, who works with families of crime victims in Minneapolis, said in June. “The bottom line is, it was long enough to kill him.”

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March 30, 2021, 10:24 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 10:24 a.m. ET

Timothy Arango

Reporting from Minneapolis

Court is back in session with Donald Williams, the mixed martial arts fighter who witnessed George Floyd’s arrest, back on the stand. His testimony yesterday was interrupted when the court’s livestream feed went down.

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March 30, 2021, 9:54 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 9:54 a.m. ET

Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs

Reporting from New York

Beginning the second day of the trial, Judge Peter A. Cahill rules that four younger witnesses may testify off-camera, but that audio of their testimony will be broadcast live. Two of the witnesses are children, and two were minors at the time of George Floyd’s death but have since turned 18.

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March 30, 2021, 9:56 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 9:56 a.m. ET

Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs

Reporting from New York

Notably, this includes the 18-year-old woman who took the widely seen bystander video of Derek Chauvin kneeling on Mr. Floyd. She was 17 at the time. A lawyer representing a media coalition that includes The New York Times had objected to allowing her to testify off-camera, noting that she has spoken publicly about the case.

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March 30, 2021, 9:22 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 9:22 a.m. ET
The Derek Chauvin trial aired at Manuel's Tavern in Atlanta on Monday.
The Derek Chauvin trial aired at Manuel’s Tavern in Atlanta on Monday.Credit…Nicole Craine for The New York Times

The trial of Derek Chauvin, the former Minneapolis police officer accused of killing George Floyd, enters its second day on Tuesday with a clearer view of the strategies of both the prosecution and the defense.

Since Mr. Floyd’s death in May, public perception has been largely based on the video that showed Mr. Chauvin kneeling on Mr. Floyd for more than nine minutes. But it was made clear on Monday that the defense wants jurors to consider more.

A lawyer for Mr. Chauvin said that he also wanted the jurors to take into account Mr. Floyd’s size, the drugs that were found in his system and the agitated crowd that stood on the sidewalk — which he said distracted Mr. Chauvin.

Prosecutors hoped to bring jurors’ attention back to the video that led to protests against police brutality in towns and cities across the nation.

The defense’s tactic has been used to defend other police officers at the center of damning videos, including in the cases of Rodney King and Laquan McDonald. The officers who were seen kicking and beating Mr. King with batons were acquitted on state charges but convicted on federal civil rights charges. The officer who fatally shot Mr. McDonald was convicted of second-degree murder, the most serious charge that Mr. Chauvin is now facing.

While the video will undoubtedly play a major role in this trial, so will Mr. Floyd’s precise cause of death.

On Monday, prosecutors said they would present seven additional medical experts to show that he died from asphyxia, which would pin the blame more definitively on Mr. Chauvin. The defense argued that Mr. Floyd died of hypertension, heart disease, drug ingestion and “the adrenaline flowing through his body.”

As the trial proceeds this week, the nervous energy that pervaded downtown Minneapolis on Monday is likely to linger. Several government buildings, including the courthouse, have been encased with concrete slabs and metal fencing.

On a lawn just south of the courthouse, members of Mr. Floyd’s family and their lawyers pointed to earlier cases in which video evidence was not enough to secure a conviction against a police officer.

“They say trust the system,” said Terrence Floyd, one of Mr. Floyd’s brothers. “Well, this is your chance to show us we can trust you.”

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March 30, 2021, 8:35 a.m. ETMarch 30, 2021, 8:35 a.m. ET
Police officers standing guard in Minneapolis on May 29 after a night of protests fueled by the death of George Floyd.
Police officers standing guard in Minneapolis on May 29 after a night of protests fueled by the death of George Floyd.Credit…Scott Olson/Getty Images

MINNEAPOLIS — The sacred intersection where George Floyd died beneath the knee of a police officer has seen such an increase in violence that food delivery drivers are afraid to venture there. There have been gun battles, with bloodied shooting victims dragged to ambulances because of barricades keeping the police and emergency vehicles away.

“Having no police: This is the experiment right here,” said P.J. Hill, a leader of Worldwide Outreach for Christ, a church that has been on that corner in Minneapolis for almost 40 years. “This is their one-block experiment.”

Residents all over town still complain of officers using excessive force, like during a recent confrontation in which a white officer appeared to wind up and punch a Black teenager. And officers accuse some community members of antagonizing them, like in a recent dispute over a homeless encampment that erupted into a melee with punches and pepper spray.

A pledge by most City Council members in June to defund and dismantle the Police Department and create a new system of public safety met fierce resistance. It has since given way to a grab bag of efforts that have yet to prove their effectiveness and have left the city fractured.

Looming over everything is a palpable unease over what the 12 jurors will decide in the trial of Derek Chauvin, who is facing second- and third-degree murder charges, as well as manslaughter, after being captured on video kneeling on Mr. Floyd’s neck for more than nine minutes in May.

Many worry that an acquittal could set back the work that has been done to reform public safety and to attempt healing, and put the city right back where it was last summer with buildings ablaze and the streets roiling with anger.

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March 29, 2021, 8:30 p.m. ETMarch 29, 2021, 8:30 p.m. ET

The New York Times

John Eligon, a New York Times national correspondent, has reported on the death of George Floyd, the protests it set off across the nation, and the weeks leading up to the trial of Derek Chauvin, the former police officer accused of killing Mr. Floyd. In the videos below, Mr. Eligon breaks down Day 1 of the courtroom proceedings and what might emerge during the trial in the coming weeks.

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